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危难时刻,公众需要文化

来源:联合国教科文组织微信公众号       发布时间:2020/4/15 16:23:13

  与许多危机一样,新冠病毒疫情凸显了人民和社区对文化的需求。在这个数十亿人在空间上彼此分离的时期,文化将我们团结在一起。在这个令人焦虑和充满不确定性的时刻,文化提供了慰藉、鼓舞和希望。然而,虽然文化对于我们度过危机至关重要,但是文化本身也在受到冲击。许多艺术家和创作者——尤其是自由职业者——已经无法维持生计,更无法创作新的艺术作品。大大小小的文化机构每天损失数百万元的收入。在全世界努力应对新冠肺炎的直接危害的同时,我们也需要采取措施,在短期和长期内支持艺术家和文化获取。

  作者:奥托内(Ernesto Ottone,教科文组织文化助理总干事)

  一、文化:增强社会韧性的公益事业

  今天,我们面临着本世纪前所未有的全球危机。已经有成千上万的人死于新冠肺炎,还有更多的人被感染。全世界数十亿人被限制出行。那些不能在家办公的人——医生、护士、急救人员、在超市和药店等基本服务行业工作的人以及环卫工人——每天都在冒着生命危险保护我们的安全和健康。面对这一全球大流行病,即使是最富裕的国家的医疗系统也不堪重负。在这场卫生危机结束之后,新冠肺炎的经济、社会和心理影响还可能会持续很长时间。

  与许多危机一样,新冠病毒疫情凸显了人民和社区对文化的需求。在社交媒体上,我们看到了世界著名艺术家和音乐家义务为邻居和数百万网民表演的鼓舞人心的视频。许多人发挥他们的艺术才华以传播关于新冠病毒的重要信息,比如正确的洗手方式和保持社交距离的必要性。我们看到,许多社区的居民尽管在家隔离,也聚集在窗前和阳台上一起唱歌、演奏音乐、跳舞甚至放映电影。一些对公众关闭的博物馆、歌剧院、音乐厅和其他文化机构慷慨地提供了免费的线上参观和演出。图书馆和电影资料馆也向公众开放了他们的藏品。教科文组织正在鼓励世界遗产地仿效这一做法。教科文组织的“欧洲世界遗产之旅”等平台为人们提供了足不出户探索世界遗产的机会。

  在这个数十亿人在空间上彼此分离的时期,文化将我们团结在一起,让我们保持联系,缩短了我们的距离。在这个令人焦虑和充满不确定性的时刻,文化提供了慰藉、鼓舞和希望。

  二、文化同样面临危机

  然而,虽然文化对于我们度过危机至关重要,但是我们不能忘记文化本身也在受到冲击。许多艺术家和创作者——尤其是自由职业者——已经无法维持生计,更无法创作新的艺术作品。大大小小的文化机构每天损失数百万元的收入。许多世界遗产地已经关闭,这也将对生活在其中及其周围的社区产生社会和经济影响。新冠肺炎已使许多非物质文化遗产实践中断,包括宗教和非宗教的仪式、习俗和典礼,对世界各地社区的社会和文化生活产生了严重影响。最近发生在萨格勒布的地震表明,文化遗产在自然灾害和其他威胁面前依然十分脆弱,而新冠肺炎疫情使应急响应更加困难。

  此外,全世界仍有数以百万计的人无法通过数字手段获取文化。根据联合国国际电信联盟的数据,发达国家86%的人口能够上网,而发展中国家只有47%的人口能够上网。国际电信联盟和教科文组织设立的宽带促进可持续发展委员会在其《2019年宽带状况报告》中明确指出,低收入国家共有43.5%的受访者认为互联网连通性差阻碍了他们上网,而中高收入国家和高收入国家的这一比例分别为34.6%和25%。在上网方面仍然存在着显著的性别差异。根据经合组织(OECD)的数据,拥有智能手机并能上网的女性比男性少2700万人。2019年,教科文组织与EQUALS全球伙伴关系共同发表了一份题为《如果我能,我会脸红》的文件。该文件指出,目前女性具备数字素养的可能性比男性低4倍。

  三、采取行动支持艺术家并扩大文化获取

  在全世界努力应对新冠肺炎的直接危害的同时,我们也需要采取措施,在短期和长期内支持艺术家和文化获取。

  我们需要努力确保文化对全民开放,确保人类文化表现形式的多样性繁荣发展,无论是在线上还是线下。如果要确保没有互联网连接的社区——包括土著人民——也能获取文化,那么我们就必须使用替代工具,例如社区电台。我们需要鼓励各国确保艺术家能够参与全球市场,并确保他们的工作得到公平报酬。五分之一的文化从业者属于兼职,而且往往是合同制的、间歇工作的自由职业者。在这一背景下,我们需要反思艺术家的劳工和社会保护框架,将艺术家独特的工作方式纳入考虑。无论是平时还是在危机时刻,我们都需要确保艺术家和创作者的经济、社会和公民权利得到保障。这包括他们的表达自由权和免受审查的权利。

  教科文组织致力于在这一自我隔离和限制出行的时期扩大文化获取。我们已经发起了题为#分享文化#的社交媒体活动,以鼓励全世界人民在网上彼此分享他们的文化和创意。我们还在进一步加强扩大文化获取和支持艺术家保护的努力,以从根本上解决当前文化面临的危机。

  现在,人民对文化的需求空前强烈。文化使我们坚韧。它带给我们希望。它提醒着我们,我们并不孤独。因此,无论是在此次危机期间还是危机之后,教科文组织都将尽全力支持文化,保护我们的文化遗产,赋能艺术家和创作者。我们希望你与我们一同努力,以你力所能及的方式支持你社区的文化。

  (英文版)

  In moments of crisis,people need culture

  COVID-19 has brought into stark relief,as crises often do,the necessity of culture for people and communities.At a time when billions of people are physically separated from one another,culture brings us together.It provides comfort,inspiration and hope at a time of enormous anxiety and uncertainty.Yet even as we rely on culture to get us through this crisis,culture is also suffering.Many artists and creators,especially those that work in the informal or gig economy,are now unable to make ends meet,much less produce new works of art.Cultural institutions,both large and small,are losing millions in revenue with each passing day.As the world works to address the immediate danger of COVID-19,we also need to put in place measures to support artists and access to culture,both in the short and long-term.

  by Ernesto Ottone,UNESCO Assistant Director-General for Culture

  1.Culture,common good for resilient societies

  Today we are facing a global crisis unlike any we have seen this century.Thousands of people have lost their lives to COVID-19 and many more have been infected.Billions of people are now confined to their homes around the world.Those who cannot work from home–doctors,nurses,emergency personnel,people who work in essential services like supermarkets and pharmacies,and sanitation workers,just to name a few–are putting their lives on the line every day to keep us safe and healthy.Healthcare systems in even the wealthiest of countries are straining under the pressure of this global pandemic.Economically,socially and psychologically,the impact of COVID-19 will likely be felt long after this sanitary crisis is over.

  COVID-19 has brought into stark relief,as crises often do,the necessity of culture for people and communities.On social media,we have seen inspiring videos of world-renowned artists and musicians performing for free for their neighbours,as well as millions of people online.Many are using their artistic talents to spread important information about COVID-19,such as proper handwashing and the need for social distancing.We have seen entire communities,isolated in their homes and apartments,come together to sing,play music,dance and even project films from their windows and balconies.Museums,opera houses,concert halls and other cultural institutions,now closed to the public,have generously opened their doors online,providing free virtual tours of their collections and streaming performances for free.Libraries,including film libraries,have also opened up their collections to the public.UNESCO is encouraging World Heritage sites to follow suit,and UNESCO platforms such as World Heritage Journeys in Europe already offer a means for people to explore World Heritage from their homes.

  At a time when billions of people are physically separated from one another,culture has brought us together,keeping us connected and shortening the distance between us.It has provided comfort,inspiration and hope at a time of enormous anxiety and uncertainty.

  2.Culture is also in crisis

  Yet even as we rely on culture to get us through this crisis,we cannot forget that culture is also suffering.Many artists and creators,especially those that work in the informal or gig economy,are now unable to make ends meet,much less produce new works of art.Cultural institutions,both large and small,are losing millions in revenue with each passing day.Many World Heritage properties are now closed,which will also have a social and economic impact on the communities that live in and around these sites.COVID-19 has put many intangible cultural heritage practices,including rituals,rites and ceremonies,both religious and non-religious,on hold,with important consequences for the social and cultural life of communities everywhere.As the recent earthquake in Zagreb has shown,cultural heritage remains vulnerable to natural disasters and other threats,with COVID-19 further complicating emergency response efforts.

  Moreover,for millions of people around the world access to culture through digital means remains out of reach.According to the UN’s International Telecommunications Union,86%of the population of developed countries uses the Internet,versus just 47%of the population of developing countries.The Broadband Commission for Sustainable Development,established by ITU and UNESCO,specifies in its State of Broadband 2019 report that a total of 43.5%respondents in low-income countries have pointed to poor connectivity as a barrier when trying to use the internet,compared to only 34.6%of those in upper middle-income and 25%in high-income.There also remains an important gender divide in terms of access to the Internet.According to the OECD,27 million fewer women than men have a smartphone and can access mobile Internet.The 2019 UNESCO publication"I'd Blush If I Could",produced under the auspices of the EQUALS Global Partnership,illustrates that women are now four times less likely than men to be digitally literate.

  3.Take action to support artists and increase access to culture

  As the world works to address the immediate danger of COVID-19 we also need to put in place measures to support artists and access to culture,both in the short and long-term.

  We need to work to ensure that culture is accessible to all,and that the full diversity of humanity’s cultural expressions can flourish,both online and offline.Ensuring culture is accessible to communities without Internet access,including indigenous peoples,will require that we embrace analog tools,such as community radio.We need to encourage countries to ensure that artists can access global markets and that they are fairly remunerated for their work.With one fifth of those employed in cultural occupations working part-time,and often on a contractual,freelance or intermittent basis,we need to rethink the labour and social protection frameworks surrounding artists,to take into account the unique ways in which artists work.At all times,including crises such as this one,we need to ensure that the economic,social and human rights of artists and creators are respected.This includes their right to free expression and protection from censorship.

  UNESCO has made it its mission to promote access to culture during this time of self-isolation and confinement.We have launched the social media campaign#ShareCulture and encourage people around the world to share their culture and creativity with one another online.We are also working to step up our ongoing efforts to increase access to culture and support protections for artists,in order to address the root causes of the current crisis facing culture.

  Now,more than ever,people need culture.Culture makes us resilient.It gives us hope.It reminds us that we are not alone.That is why UNESCO will do all it can to support culture,to safeguard our heritage and empower artists and creators,now and after this crisis has passed.We hope you will join us in this effort,by supporting culture in your own community,however you can.